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National Association of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapists


Why Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy?
(c) Copyright, 2010 by Dr. Aldo Pucci



Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies are research-supported approaches to counseling / psychotherapy with distinct advantages.  This page describes the advantages of CBT as well as citations of various research studies supporting CBT.

Advantages

1. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies are very instructive.  When clients / patients understand how to counsel themselves rationally, they have confidence that they will continue to do well.  For this reason, cognitive-behavioral therapists teach their clients rational self-counseling skills.

 

2. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies are shorter-term.  The average number of sessions that people spend in cognitive-behavioral therapy, across the various approaches to CBT and problems, is 16.  There are those people who require more sessions (sometimes many more), but the average is 16 sessions.

3. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies emphasize getting better, rather than feeling better.  By correcting problematic underlying assumptions, CBT creates long-term results since the cause of the problem is corrected.

4. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies are cross-cultural.  They are based on universal laws of human behavior.  They also focus on the client's goals, rather than attempting to impose the therapist's goals on the client.

5. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies are structured.  The structured nature of therapy sessions very much reduces the possibility that sessions will become "chat sessions" in which not much is accomplished therapeutically.

6. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies can be researched.  Because there are clearly defined goals and clearly defined techniques, CBT can be examined with scientific research. 

7. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies are adaptive.  The fundamental principle of CBT is that thoughts (cognitions) cause our feelings and behaviors.


 


Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) Outcome Studies


Research Links

The Empirical Status of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: A Review of Meta-Analyses. (PDF)

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in the Treatment of Anger: A Meta-Analysis (PDF)

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy For Treatment of Chronic
Primary Insomnia (PDF)

TWO-YEAR FOLLOW-UP STUDY OF COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPY FOR SEXUALLY ABUSED CHILDREN SUFFERING POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS SYMPTOMS (PDF)

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Women (PDF)

CBT For Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (PDF)

CBT for Medication-Resistant Symptoms of Schizophrenia (PDF)

CBT for Schizophrenia (PDF)

CBT for Social Phobia (PDF)

CBT for Panic Disorder (HTML)

CBT for Bulimia (PDF)



ADULTS


Depression

Butler, A.C., Chapman, J.E., Forman, E.M., & Beck, A.T. (2006). The empirical status of cognitive-behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analyses. Clinical Psychology Review, 26(1), 17-31.

Chambless, Diane L., Ollendick, & Thomas H. (2001). “Empirically Supported Psychological Interventions: Controversies and Evidence.” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 52:685-716.

Gloaguen, V., Cottraux, J., Cucherat, M., & Blackburn, I. (1998). A meta-analysis of the effects of cognitive therapy in depressed patients. Journal of Affective Disorders, 49, 59-72.

Geriatric Depression

Chambless, Diane L., Ollendick, & Thomas H. (2001). “Empirically Supported Psychological Interventions: Controversies and Evidence.” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 52:685-716.

Relapse Prevention for Depression

Fava G.A., Rafanelli C., Grandi S., et al. (1998). Prevention of recurrent depression with cognitive behavioral therapy. Preliminary findings. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 55:816–20.

Paykel, E.S., Scott, J., Teasdale, J., Johnson, A.L. et al. (1999). Prevention of Relapse in Residual Depression by Cognitive Therapy. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 56:829-835.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Butler, A.C., Chapman, J.E., Forman, E.M., & Beck, A.T. (2006). The empirical status of cognitive-behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analyses. Clinical Psychology Review, 26(1), 17-31.

Chambless, Diane L., Ollendick, & Thomas H. (2001). “Empirically Supported Psychological Interventions: Controversies and Evidence.” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 52:685-716.

Gould, R. A., Otto, M. W., Pollack, M. H., & Yap, L. (1997). Cognitive behavioral and pharmacological treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: A preliminary meta-analysis. Behavior Therapy, 28, 285-305.
 

Panic Disorder

Butler, A.C., Chapman, J.E., Forman, E.M., & Beck, A.T. (2006). The empirical status of cognitive-behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analyses. Clinical Psychology Review, 26(1), 17-31.

Chambless, Diane L., Ollendick, & Thomas H. (2001). “Empirically Supported Psychological Interventions: Controversies and Evidence.” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 52:685-716.

Gould, R. A., Otto, M. W., & Pollack, M. H. (1995). A meta-analysis of treatment outcome for panic disorder. Clinical Psychology Review, 15(8), 819-844.

Agoraphobia and Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia

Butler, A.C., Chapman, J.E., Forman, E.M., & Beck, A.T. (2006). The empirical status of cognitive-behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analyses. Clinical Psychology Review, 26(1), 17-31.

Chambless, Diane L., Ollendick, & Thomas H. (2001). “Empirically Supported Psychological Interventions: Controversies and Evidence.” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 52:685-716.

Oei, T. P. S., Llamas, M., & Devilly, G. J. (1999). The efficacy and  cognitive processes of cognitive behaviour therapy in the treatment of panic disorder with agoraphobia. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 27, 63-88.

Social Anxiety / Social Phobia

Butler, A.C., Chapman, J.E., Forman, E.M., & Beck, A.T. (2006). The empirical status of cognitive-behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analyses. Clinical Psychology Review, 26(1), 17-31.

Chambless, Diane L., Ollendick, & Thomas H. (2001). “Empirically Supported Psychological Interventions: Controversies and Evidence.” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 52:685-716.

Gould, R. A., Buckminster, S., Pollack, M. H., Otto, M.W., & Yap, L. (1997). Cognitive-behavioral and pharmacological treatment for social phobia: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology: Science & Practice, 4, 291-306.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Chambless, Diane L., Ollendick, & Thomas H. (2001). “Empirically Supported Psychological Interventions: Controversies and Evidence.” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 52:685-716.

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (Trauma)

Butler, A.C., Chapman, J.E., Forman, E.M., & Beck, A.T. (2006). The empirical status of cognitive-behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analyses. Clinical Psychology Review, 26(1), 17-31.

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2005). CG26 Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): Information for the public. Retrieved from: http://www.nice.org.uk/download.aspx?o=CG026publicinfo&template=download.aspx.

Withdrawal from Anti-Anxiety Medications

Chambless, Diane L., Ollendick, & Thomas H. (2001). “Empirically Supported Psychological Interventions: Controversies and Evidence.” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 52:685-716.

Dental Phobia

Berggren, U. (2001) Long-Term Management of the Fearful Adult Patient Using Behavior Modification and Other Modalities. Journal of Dental Education. 65:12.

Bipolar Disorder

Chambless, Diane L., Ollendick, & Thomas H. (2001). “Empirically Supported Psychological Interventions: Controversies and Evidence.” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 52:685-716.   

Lam D.H., Watkins E.R., Hayward P., Bright J., et al. (2003) A randomized controlled study of cognitive therapy for relapse prevention for bipolar affective disorder: outcome of the first year. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 60(2):145-52.

Binge-eating disorder

Chambless, Diane L., Ollendick, & Thomas H. (2001). “Empirically Supported Psychological Interventions: Controversies and Evidence.” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 52:685-716.

Bulimia

Chambless, Diane L., Ollendick, & Thomas H. (2001). “Empirically Supported Psychological Interventions: Controversies and Evidence.” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 52:685-716.

Anorexia

Chambless, Diane L., Ollendick, & Thomas H. (2001). “Empirically Supported Psychological Interventions: Controversies and Evidence.” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 52:685-716.

Roth A.D., Fonagy P. (1996). What Works for Whom? A Critical Review of Psychotherapy Research. New York: Guilford.  


Body Dysmorphic Disorder (extreme dissatisfaction with body image)

Chambless, Diane L., Ollendick, & Thomas H. (2001). “Empirically Supported Psychological Interventions: Controversies and Evidence.” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 52:685-716.

Somatization Disorder

Allen, L.A., Woolfolk, R.L., Escobar, J.I., Gara, M.A., et al. (2006) Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy For Somatization Disorder. Arch Intern Med. 166:1512-1518.    

Cocaine abuse (CBT relapse prevention is effective)

Chambless, Diane L., Ollendick, & Thomas H. (2001). “Empirically Supported Psychological Interventions: Controversies and Evidence.” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 52:685-716.

Opiate Dependence

Chambless, Diane L., Ollendick, & Thomas H. (2001). “Empirically Supported Psychological Interventions: Controversies and Evidence.” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 52:685-716.

Smoking Cessation (Group CBT is effective, as well as CBT that has multiple treatment components, in combination with relapse prevention)

Chambless, Diane L., Ollendick, & Thomas H. (2001). “Empirically Supported Psychological Interventions: Controversies and Evidence.” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 52:685-716.

Marital discord

Butler, A.C., Chapman, J.E., Forman, E.M., & Beck, A.T. (2006). The empirical status of cognitive-behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analyses. Clinical Psychology Review, 26(1), 17-31.

Chambless, Diane L., Ollendick, & Thomas H. (2001). “Empirically Supported Psychological Interventions: Controversies and Evidence.” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 52:685-716.

Dunn, R. L., & Schwebel, A. I. (1995). Meta-analytic review of marital therapy outcome research. Journal of Family Psychology, 9, 58-68.

Anger

Beck, R., & Fernandez, E. (1998). Cognitive-behavioral therapy in the treatment of anger: A meta-analysis. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 22, 63-74.

Butler, A.C., Chapman, J.E., Forman, E.M., & Beck, A.T. (2006). The empirical status of cognitive-behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analyses. Clinical Psychology Review, 26(1), 17-31.

Borderline Personality Disorder

Brown, G.K., Newman, C.F., Charlesworth, S.E., Crits-Christoph, P. & Beck, A.T. (2004). An open clinical trial of cognitive therapy for borderline personality disorder. Journal of personality disorders, 18(3): 257-271. 

Giesen-Bloo, J., van Dyck, R., Spinhoven, P., van Tilburg, W., et al. (2006). Outpatient Psychotherapy for Borderline Personality Disorder: Randomized Trial of Schema-Focused Therapy vs Transference-Focused Psychotherapy. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 63:601.

Atypical sexual practices/sex offenders

Butler, A.C., Chapman, J.E., Forman, E.M., & Beck, A.T. (2006). The empirical status of cognitive-behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analyses. Clinical Psychology Review, 26(1), 17-31.

Chambless, Diane L., Ollendick, & Thomas H. (2001). “Empirically Supported Psychological Interventions: Controversies and Evidence.” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 52:685-716.

Nagayama Hall, G. C. (1995). Sexual offender recidivism revisited: A meta-analysis of recent treatment studies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63(5), 802-809.

Medically related disorders:

Chronic pain (CBT, in combination with physical therapy, is effective for chronic pain in many medical conditions)

Butler, A.C., Chapman, J.E., Forman, E.M., & Beck, A.T. (2006). The empirical status of cognitive-behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analyses. Clinical Psychology Review, 26(1), 17-31.

Chambless, Diane L., Ollendick, & Thomas H. (2001). “Empirically Supported Psychological Interventions: Controversies and Evidence.” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 52:685-716.

Morley, S., Eccleston, C., & Williams, A. (1999). Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of cognitive behaviour therapy and behaviour therapy for chronic pain in adults, excluding headache. Pain, 80, 1-13.

Chronic back pain

Chambless, Diane L., Ollendick, & Thomas H. (2001). “Empirically Supported Psychological Interventions: Controversies and Evidence.” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 52:685-716.

Fatigue and functional impairments among cancer survivors

Marieke F.M. Gielissen, Stans Verhagen, Fred Witjes, Gijs Bleijenberg. (2006). Effects of Cognitive Behavior Therapy in Severely Fatigued Disease-Free Cancer Patients Compared With Patients Waiting for Cognitive Behavior Therapy: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 24(30): 4882-48

Sickle cell disease pain (CBT that has multiple treatment components is effective)

Chambless, Diane L., Ollendick, & Thomas H. (2001). “Empirically Supported Psychological Interventions: Controversies and Evidence.” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 52:685-716.

Physical complaints not explained by a medical condition (Somatoform disorders)

Chambless, Diane L., Ollendick, & Thomas H. (2001). “Empirically Supported Psychological Interventions: Controversies and Evidence.” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 52:685-716.

Irritable-bowel syndrome

Chambless, Diane L., Ollendick, & Thomas H. (2001). “Empirically Supported Psychological Interventions: Controversies and Evidence.” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 52:685-716.

Obesity (CBT is effective in combination with hypnosis)

Chambless, Diane L., Ollendick, & Thomas H. (2001). “Empirically Supported Psychological Interventions: Controversies and Evidence.” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 52:685-716.

Asthma with Coexisting Panic Disorder (in combination with asthma education)

Ross, C.J.M., Davis, T.M.A., Macdonald, G.F.  (2005). Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment Combined With Asthma Education for Adults With Asthma and Coexisting Panic Disorder. Clinical Nursing Research. 14(2): 131-157.

Rheumatic disease pain (CBT that has multiple treatment components is effective)

Chambless, Diane L., Ollendick, & Thomas H. (2001). “Empirically Supported Psychological Interventions: Controversies and Evidence.” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 52:685-716.

Temporomandibular Disorder pain

Turner, J.A., Mancl, L., & Aaron, L.A. (2006). Short- and long-term efficacy of brief cognitive-behavioral therapy for patients with chronic temporomandibular disorder pain: A randomized, controlled trial. Pain. Feb 20.

Erectile dysfunction (CBT is effective for reducing sexual anxiety and improving communication)

Chambless, Diane L., Ollendick, & Thomas H. (2001). “Empirically Supported Psychological Interventions: Controversies and Evidence.” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 52:685-716.

Infertility (anovulation)

Berga, S. (Unpublished data). CBT can restore ovulation in infertile women. Presented at the 22nd annual conference of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology, June 20, 2006.  

Sleep disorders

Chambless, Diane L., Ollendick, & Thomas H. (2001). “Empirically Supported Psychological Interventions: Controversies and Evidence.” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 52:685-716.

Geriatric sleep disorders

Chambless, Diane L., Ollendick, & Thomas H. (2001). “Empirically Supported Psychological Interventions: Controversies and Evidence.” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 52:685-716.

Insomnia

Chesson, A.L. Jr., Anderson, W. M., Littner, M., Davila, D., Hartse, K., Johnson, S., Wise, M. & Rafecas, J. (1999). Practice Parameters for the Nonpharmacologic Treatment of Chronic Insomnia. SLEEP, 22(8), 1128-1133.

Morin, C.M., Colecchi, C., Stone, J., Sood, R., Brink, D. (1999). Behavioral and Pharmacological Therapies for Late-Life Insomnia: A Randomized Controlled Trial. JAMA, 281(11), 991-999.

Chronic fatigue syndrome

Prins J.B., Bleijenberg G., Bazelmans E., Elving L.D., et al. (2001). Cognitive behaviour therapy for chronic fatigue syndrome: a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 357(9259):841-7.

Geriatric Anxiety

Chambless, Diane L., Ollendick, & Thomas H. (2001). “Empirically Supported Psychological Interventions: Controversies and Evidence.” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 52:685-716.

 

Schizophrenia (in combination with medication)

Butler, A.C., Chapman, J.E., Forman, E.M., & Beck, A.T. (2006). The empirical status of cognitive-behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analyses. Clinical Psychology Review, 26(1), 17-31.

Chambless, Diane L., Ollendick, & Thomas H. (2001). “Empirically Supported Psychological Interventions: Controversies and Evidence.” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 52:685-716.

Rector, N. A., & Beck, A. T. (2001). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for schizophrenia: An empirical review. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 189, 278-287.

Dissociative Disorders

Nathan, P. E., & Gorman, J. M. (2002). A Guide To Treatments That Work, Second Edition. New York: Oxford University Press.

Suicide attempts

Brown, G.K., Have, T. T., Henriques, G.R., Xic, S.X., Hollander, J.E., & Beck, A.T. (2005). Cognitive Therapy for the Prevention of Suicide Attempts: A Randomized Controlled Trial. JAMA, 294, (5).

Substance/alcohol abuse

Anton, R.F., Moak, D.H., Latham, P., Waid, L.R. et al. (2005). Naltrexone combined with either cognitive behavioral or motivational enhancement therapy for alcohol dependence. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 25(4): 349-57.

Baker, A., Bucci, S., Lewin, T.J., Kay-Lambkin, F. et al. (2006). Cognitive-behavioural therapy for substance use disorders in people with psychotic disorders: Randomised controlled trial. Br J. Psychiatry. 188:439-48.       

Baker, A., Lee, N.K., Claire, M., Lewin, T.J. et al. (2005). Brief cognitive behavioural interventions for regular amphetamine users: a step in the right direction. Addiction. 100(3):367-78.

Feeney, G.F., Connor, J.P., Young, R.M., Tucker, J. et al. (2004). Alcohol dependence: the impact of cognitive behaviour therapy with or without naltrexone on subjective health status. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 38(10):842-8.

Attention deficit disorder

Hinswaw S.P., Henker B., Whalen C.K. (1984). Self-control in Hyperactive Boys in Anger-Inducing Situations: Effects of Cognitive-Behavioral Training and Methylphenidate. J Abnorm Child Psychol. (12): 55-77

Caregiver distress

Secker, D.L., & Brown, R.G. (2005). Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for carers of patients with Parkinson’s disease: a preliminary randomised controlled trial. J. Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 76(4):491-7.

Habit disorders

O’Connor, K.P., Brault, M., Robillard, S., Loiselle, J. et al. (2001). Evaluation of a cognitive-behavioural program for the management of chronic tic and habit disorders. Behav Res Ther. 39(6):667-81.

Migraine headaches

Blanchard, E.B., Appelbaum, K.A., Nicholson, N.L., Radnitz, C.L., et al. (1990). A controlled evaluation of the addition of cognitive therapy to a home-based biofeedback and relaxation treatment of vascular headache. Headache. 30(6)371-6.    

Martin, P.R., Nathan, P.R., Milech, D., & van Keppel, M. (1989). Cognitive therapy vs. self-management training in the treatment of chronic headaches. Br J Clin Psychol. 28(Pt 4): 347-61.

Non-cardiac chest pain

Mayou, R.A., Bryant, B.M., Sanders, D., Bass, C. et al. (1997). A controlled trial of cognitive behavioural therapy for non-cardiac chest pain. Psychol Med. 27(5): 1021-31.

Van Peski-Oosterbaan, A.S., Spinhoven, P., Van der Does A.J., Bruschke, A.V., et al. (1999). Cognitive change following cognitive behavioural therapy for non-cardiac chest pain. Psychother Psychosom. 68(4):214-20.

Cancer pain

Chambless, Diane L., Ollendick, & Thomas H. (2001). “Empirically Supported Psychological Interventions: Controversies and Evidence.” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 52:685-716.

Pain relating to a disease that has no known cause (Idiopathic pain)

Chambless, Diane L., Ollendick, & Thomas H. (2001). “Empirically Supported Psychological Interventions: Controversies and Evidence.” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 52:685-716.

Hypochondriasis, or the unsubstantiated belief that one has a serious medical condition

Chambless, Diane L., Ollendick, & Thomas H. (2001). “Empirically Supported Psychological Interventions: Controversies and Evidence.” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 52:685-716.

Chronic pain

Chambless, Diane L., Ollendick, & Thomas H. (2001). “Empirically Supported Psychological Interventions: Controversies and Evidence.” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 52:685-716.

Hypertension (CBT is effective as an adjunctive treatment)

Shapiro D., Hui K.K., Oakley M.E., et al. (1997). Reduction in drug requirements for hypertension by means of a cognitive-behavioral intervention. Am J Hypertens. 10:9–17.

Fibromyalgia  

Edinger, J.D., Wohlgemuth, W.K., Krystal, A.D., Rice, J.R. (2005). Behavioral Insomnia Therapy for Fibromyalgia Patients. Arch Intern Med. 165:2527-2535.

Goldenberg, D.L., Burckhardt, C, Crofford, L. (2004). Management of Fibromyalgia Syndrome. JAMA. 292:2388-2395.

Colitis

Mussell, M., Bocker, U., Nagel, N., Olbrich, R., et al. (2003). Reducing psychological distress in patients with inflammatory bowel disease by cognitive-behavioural treatment: exploratory study of effectiveness. Scand J Gastroenterol. 38(7):755-62.

Gulf War Syndrome

Donta, S.T., Clauw, D.J., Engel, C.C. Jr., Guarino, P., et al. (2003). Cognitive behavioural therapy and aerobic exercise for Gulf War veterans’ illnesses: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 289(11):1396-404.     

Tinnitus

Andersson, G., Stromgren, T., Strom, L., & Lyttkens, L. (2002). Randomized Controlled Trial of Internet-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Distress Associated with Tinnitus. Psychosomatic Medicine. 64: 810–816.

CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS
 

Depression 

Butler, A.C., Chapman, J.E., Forman, E.M., & Beck, A.T. (2006). The empirical status of cognitive-behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analyses. Clinical Psychology Review, 26(1), 17-31.

Chambless, Diane L., Ollendick, & Thomas H. (2001). “Empirically Supported Psychological Interventions: Controversies and Evidence.” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 52:685-716.

Grossman, P. B., & Hughes, J. N. (1992). Self-control interventions with internalizing disorders: A review and analysis. School Psychology Review, 21(2), 229-245.

Reinecke, M. A., Ryan, N. E., DuBois, D. L. (1998). Cognitive-behavioral therapy of depression and depressive symptoms during adolescence: A review and meta-analysis. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent  Psychiatry, 37(1), 26-34.

Anxiety disorders

Butler, A.C., Chapman, J.E., Forman, E.M., & Beck, A.T. (2006). The empirical status of cognitive-behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analyses. Clinical Psychology Review, 26(1), 17-31.

Chambless, Diane L., Ollendick, & Thomas H. (2001). “Empirically Supported Psychological Interventions: Controversies and Evidence.” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 52:685-716.

Grossman, P. B., & Hughes, J. N. (1992). Self-control interventions with internalizing disorders: A review and analysis. School Psychology Review, 21(2), 229-245.

Separation anxiety

Chambless, Diane L., Ollendick, & Thomas H. (2001). “Empirically Supported Psychological Interventions: Controversies and Evidence.” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 52:685-716.

Avoidant disorder

Chambless, Diane L., Ollendick, & Thomas H. (2001). “Empirically Supported Psychological Interventions: Controversies and Evidence.” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 52:685-716.

Overanxious disorder

Chambless, Diane L., Ollendick, & Thomas H. (2001). “Empirically Supported Psychological Interventions: Controversies and Evidence.” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 52:685-716.

Obsessive-compulsive disorder

March, J.S. (1995). Cognitive-Behavioral Psychotherapy for Children and Adolescents with OCD: A Review and Recommendations for Treatment. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 34(1):7-18.

O’Kearney RT, Anstey KJ, von Sanden C. (2006). Behavioural and cognitive behavioural therapy for obsessive compulsive disorder in children and adolescents (Review). The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 4.

Phobias

Chambless, Diane L., Ollendick, & Thomas H. (2001). “Empirically Supported Psychological Interventions: Controversies and Evidence.” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 52:685-716.

Post-traumatic stress disorder

Cohen J.A., Deblinger E., Mannarino A.P., Steer R. (2004), A multi-site randomized controlled trial for multiply traumatized children with sexual abuse-related PTSD. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 43(4):393-402.

Deblinger E., Stauffer L.B., Steer R.A. (2001). Comparative efficacies of supportive and cognitive behavioral group therapies for young children who have been sexually abused and their non-offending mothers. Child Maltreatment, 6: 332-343.

Conduct disorder

Chambless, Diane L., Ollendick, & Thomas H. (2001). “Empirically Supported Psychological Interventions: Controversies and Evidence.” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 52:685-716.

Distress due to medical procedures

Chambless, Diane L., Ollendick, & Thomas H. (2001). “Empirically Supported Psychological Interventions: Controversies and Evidence.” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 52:685-716.

Recurrent abdominal pain

Chambless, Diane L., Ollendick, & Thomas H. (2001). “Empirically Supported Psychological Interventions: Controversies and Evidence.” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 52:685-716.

Physical complaints not explained by a medical condition  

Butler, A.C., Chapman, J.E., Forman, E.M., & Beck, A.T. (2006). The empirical status of cognitive-behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analyses. Clinical Psychology Review, 26(1), 17-31.

Grossman, P. B., & Hughes, J. N. (1992). Self-control interventions with internalizing disorders: A review and analysis. School Psychology Review, 21(2), 229-245.


  

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